Introduction: Over 100 million people worldwide are affected by urogenital schistosomiasis, a disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium. Here, we report our experience with urogenital schistosomiasis.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with urogenital schistosomiasis between 2004 and 2012. Clinical and demographic variables were analyzed.
Results: All cases (5) occurred in male patients with a median age of 33.8 years (range: 14-47). All patients resided in or had visited endemic areas. The average time from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 19.5 weeks (1-52). Hematuria was the most common initial clinical sign in 3 cases (60%), 2 of which arose in a monosymptomatic form. One case presented with sepsis and acute renal failure (ARF), and another case presented atypically and was diagnosed in an organ donor candidate. Four cases exhibited consistent bladder calcifications that were found through radiographic imaging at the time of diagnosis. The parasite was identified in urine in 1 case (20%), and cystoscopy results were suspicious for 2 of them (40%). The chosen standard treatment was pharmacological (Praziquantel) after anatomopathological confirmation.
Conclusions: Given the high prevalence of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan countries, the emergence of macro- or microscopic hematuria in immigrants or travelers requires comprehensive study and the consideration of schistosomiasis as a probable cause. Accurate diagnosis and early treatment can prevent complications from tissue inflammation caused by the parasite.
Lucas Regis,1 Fernando Lozano,1 Miguel A. Lopez-Pacios,1 Juan Morote,1,2
1Department of Urology, Vall d´Hebron Hospital, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, 2Vall d´Hebron Research Institute, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona
Submitted August 5, 2013 - Accepted for Publication September 20, 2013
KEYWORDS: Hematuria, schistosomiasis, Schistosoma haematobium, urine cytology
CITATION: UroToday Int J. 2013 December;6(6):art 78. http://dx.doi.org/10.3834/uij.1944-5784.2013.12.13